Environmental Indicators
Environmental Indicators
6.1- Use of Freshwater Resources

This indicator is a pressure indicator. Total water consumption indicates the use of water sources (surface and groundwater) to meet the requirements such as drinking water and water demand of industry and agriculture. Water consumption is the indicator of the pressure on the fresh water bodies.

Based on the data of General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works about irrigation and the data of TURKSTAT about other types of water consumption, 71.3% of the water drawn was used for agricultural irrigation, 18.4% for industry, and 10.3% as drinking and potable water use, in 2016.

Based on the 2010 data presented by United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and published in 2016, 69% of the water source is used for irrigation, 19% for industry and 12% for domestic use in the World [30].

According to the data provided by the European Environöment Agency (EEA) , as of 2015, in the EEA members other than Southern Cyprus and Turkey, Avrupa Çevre Ajansı verilerine göre ise 2015 yılı itibariyle, Güney Kıbrıs, Türkiye dışındaki ajans üyesi avrupa ülkelerinde su kaynaklarının 40.4% of water resources were consumed in agriculture, forestry and fishing, 27.8 % in electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, 17.7% in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction, 11.6% in households, 2,6% in service industry [31].

TABLE 11- AMOUNT OF WATER DRAWN FROM WATER BODIES WITH REGARD TO USAGE (Billion m3/year)

 YEARS

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

Municipalities

4.55

4.78

4.94

5.23

5.83

Villages

1.22

1.01

1.04

0.43

0.38

Manufacturing Industry Activities

1.31

1.56

1.79

2.20

2.12

Thermal Power Plants

4.54

4.27

6.40

6.53

8.61

Organized Industrial Zones

0.11

0.11

0.14

0.14

0.15

Mining Facilities

… (*)

0.05

0.11

0.21

0.23

Irrigation

33.77

38.15

41.55

35.85

43.06

Total

 

49.95

55.96

50.59

60.38

(*) No Information

Note: TURKSTAT data includes sea water use.

Source: TURSTAT, “Sectoral Water and Wastewater Statistics” Press Release,

Source For ‘Irrigation’ Values: Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=27672

 

GRAPH 28- WATER USAGE BY SECTORS, (2010-2016)

 

Water exploitation index (WEI) is the annual total fresh water abstraction in a country as a percentage of its long term average available water (LTAA) from renewable fresh water resources.

Annual mean precipitation in Turkey is 643 mm, which corresponds to 501 Bm3 (billion m3) of annual water volume in the country. A volume of 274 Bm3 water evaporates from water bodies, plants and soils to atmosphere, 158 Bm3 flows through rivers towards seas and lakes. 69 Bm3 of volume of water leaks into groundwater, whereas 28 Bm3 is retrieved by springs from groundwater contributing to surface water. Also, there are 7 billion m3 volume of water coming from neighboring countries. Thus, total annual surface runoff amounts to a volume of 193 Bm3 of water.

Including 41 (69-28) Bm3 net discharging into groundwater, the gross (surface and groundwater) renewable water potential of Turkey is estimated as 234 (193+41) Bm3 [34].

WEI of Turkey is 21.3% in 2010, 23.9% in 2012, 21.6% for 2014 and 25.8% in 2016. Index being above 20% shows water scarcity for Turkey. Index above 40% means severe water scarcity [35]. Data on this indicator concludes that Turkey needs to take measures for sustainable water resources management.