1.2- Urban-Rural Population Ratio

Urban population appears to be a driving force leading to pressure on environmental assets. Rapid growth of urban population, correspondingly brings about an increase in urban expansion, infrastructure, transportation, housing, industrial area, and energy needs, which in the end leads to environmental problems such as air pollution, wastewater and noise. Urbanisation is one of the most important processes which are experienced parallel to industrialization and economic development.

According to the first census conducted in 1927 In Turkey, population was 13,648,270, and 75.8% of the people lived in towns and villages and 24.2% in cities; however, after 1950 population started to agglomerate in urban areas.

Ratio of the total urban population was 77.3 in 2012. However, in 2013, with the ammendment of the Law on Metropolitan Municipalities, new metropolitan municipalities were established in 14 provinces. Towns and villages were affiliated to these municipalities as districts in 30 provinces with metropolitan status. This had a significant influence on the increase of urbanisation rate to 91.3 % in 2013 and to 92.3% in 2016. Proportion of population living in small towns and villages was 7.7% in 2016

According to the results of Address Based Population Registration System in 2016, population residing in province and district centres was 73,671,748 persons and population residing in towns and villages was 6,143,123 persons[2].

About half of the global population lives in urban areas, and this share is projected to increase to two thirds by 2050. Nearly 73% of the European population lives in cities [4], [5], [6].

GRAPH 3- URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION RATES THROUGH THE YEARS

Source: TURKSTAT

Notes:

(1)  The results of population cencuses were used for the years between 1927 and 2000 while the results of address based population registration system were used for the years between 2010 and 2016.

(2) In 2013, main reason of the sudden change in the urban and rural populations is the restructuring of administrative divisions by the Law No. 6360.