Environmental Indicators
Environmental Indicators
9.1- Total Number of Species, Endangered Species, Endemism Rate

This is an impact indicator. Impact of human activities is closely related to the biological diversity.

Turkey is an interception zone of Mediterranean and Near East botanic diversity and origin centres; also an origin source for the genetic diversity centres of several cultivated plants.

Turkey has a unique location for plant species especially seed plants, considering its climatic zone. The rate of endemism is very high in Angiospermae, which belongs to flowering plant groups. Of the level of species and subspecies, there are nearly 11,000 flowering plant types, 3,925 of which are endemic, and the endemism rate is close to 34%.

Among the seedless plants, most renowned plant group is the ferns (Pteridophtyes). The number of Sword ferns in species and subspecies in Turkey are 101 and only 3 of them are endemic [49].

Turkey is a very rich country in terms of endemic plants; however, these endemic species are under serious threats. According to the criteria of IUCN, 2001, approximately 600 of our endemic species are in the category of “seriously endangered-CR” and 700 of them are categorised as “endangered-EN”.

 

TABLE 17- NUMBER OF TAXONS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES, STATE OF ENDEMISM, RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES AND EXTINCT SPECIES

Plant Groups

Identified Species/Subspecies

Endemic Species

Rare and Endangered Species

Extinct Species

Algae

2150

-

unknown

unknown

Lichen

1000

-

unknown

unknown

Bryophytes

910

2

2

unknown

Sword ferns

101

3

1

unknown

Gymnosperms

35

5

1

unknown

Monocotyledons

1765

420

180

-

Cotyledons

9100

3500

1100

11

Source: National Biological Diversity Strategy and Action Plan 2007

 

Turkey is also rich and interesting for fauna, owing to its location. 460 bird, 161 mammal, 141 reptile, 480 sea fish and 236 freshwater fish species have been identified in the country.

Among 141 reptile and amphibian species of Turkey, 16 are endemic, of which 10 are threatened. No bird species has been identified as endemic. However, 5 species and 32 subspecies of mammals, 16 species/subspecies of reptiles and 70 species/sub-species of freshwater fish are endemic.

Although invertebrate fauna is not studied as much as vertebrates, 30,000 species have been identified while total number of species is estimated to be 60,000-80,000.

There are 10 sea mammal species spotted in Turkey maritime zones. While 21 sea mammal species either live in or periodically visit the Mediterranean sea, only 3 species live in the Black Sea. It was reported that the Mediterranean seal (monachus monachus) has not been seen in the Black Sea since 1994.

 

TABLE 18- NUMBER OF TAXONS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANIMAL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES, STATE OF ENDEMISM, NUMBER OF RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES, AND EXTINCT SPECIES

Animal Groups

Defined Species

Endemic Species/ Subspecies Variety

Rare/ Endangered

Species

Extinct

Species

VERTEBRATES

 

 

 

 

Reptiles/Amphibian

141

16

10

-

Birds

460

 

17

-

Mammals

161

37

23

4

Freshwater Fishes

236

70

-

4

Marine Fishes

480

-

-

-

INVERTEBRATES

 

 

 

 

Molluscs

522

203

unknown

unknown

Butterflies

6500

89

89

unknown

Locusts

600

270

-

-

Damselflies

114

-

-

-

Coleoptera

~10,000

~3,000

-

-

Hemiptera

~1400

~200

-

-

Homoptera

~1500

~200

-

-

Source: National biodiversity strategy and action plan 2007

 

During the combat against bio-smuggling, number of bio-smuggling cases between 2007 and 2016 is as follows.

 

TABLE 19- NUMBER OF BIO-SMUGGLING CASES RECORDED (2007-2017)

YEARS

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Number of

bio-smuggling cases

2

2

2

9

21

11

2

5

8

3

3

Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, General Directorate of Nature Conservationand National Parks, (http://www.milliparklar.gov.tr/resmiistatistikleryeni)