4.7- Sea Surface Temperature

This impact indicator represents the annual change in sea surface temperature. Main sources of atmospheric weather events and air masses are oceans and seas. Warming and cooling trends in sea surface are the most accurate indicators of climate change, and changes in sea surface temperature affect many living creatures by changing the ecological structure in oceans. 

Sea water temperature does not give a quick response to atmospheric warming or cooling; however, air temperature responds immediately to any change. Sea water heats up and cools down slower than land; therefore sea surface temperature is a meteorological parameter which does not show any sudden change. The major factors affecting sea surface temperature are latitude, salinity, cold water currents, and wind directions.

The long-term annual mean sea temperature data recorded by Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) indicate a slight increase, however, this cannot be concluded as a warming at global scale. To monitor the whole process, sea surface temperatures are monitored by TSMS in all seas to represent all over the coasts of Turkey. . That will help establish a higher resolution marine dataset in future.

The mean sea temperature values in 2016 are 22.1 °C in the Mediterranean Sea, 18.9 °C in the Aegean Sea, 17.2 °C in the Marmara Sea, and 16.4 °C in the Black Sea. The annual mean sea surface temperatures (in °C) recorded in years between 1970-2016 are given in the following figure [24].

 

GRAPH 19- MEDITERRANEAN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES THROUGH THE YEARS (°C)

Source: Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Turkish State Meteorological Service

GRAPH 20- AEGEAN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES THROUGH THE YEARS (°C)

GRAPH 21- BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES THROUGH THE YEARS (°C)

GRAPH 22- MARMARA SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES THROUGH THE YEARS (°C)

Source: Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Turkish State Meteorological Service