2.1- Resource Efficiency

Resource efficiency is the ratio of GDP to domestic material consumption (DMC). DMC equals the extractions of materials used by producer units in the economy plus imports — called direct material input (DMI) — minus exports.

In the EU-28 economy based on a comparison to the 2000 resource efficiency by 34% between 2015 and 2000, while in Turkey has increased by 30% [8].

GRAPH 5- RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

Source: EUROSTAT,

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tsdpc100&language=en

 

If comparisons of resource efficiency between countries are to be made then the GDP in purchasing power standards should be used (code: RP_PPS). According to this, while the gross domestic product (GDP) of 1.5 euros was generated for every kilogram of material consumed in 2015 in Turkey, while this figure was 2.2 euros in 2016 in EU-28 countries[8].

Domestic material consumption per capita represents the level of efficienct use of production and material input for the national economy. In Turkey, domestic material consumption (DMC) per capita has increased from 9.8 tons in 2000 to 12.9 tons in 2015 with a 23.6% incerease. Between 2000 and 2015 per capita DMC of the EU-28 decreased from 15.6 tonnes to 13.5 tonnes, decreasing by 14.1%.

Worldwide material extraction — which equals the world’s DMC as the global trade balance is zero — was 11.8 tonnes per capita in 2013, having increased steadily from 8.5 tonnes per capita in 2000, according to estimates by SERI (Sustainable Europe Research Institute) and the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU Vienna)[9].

As seen on the graph, per capita DMC of Turkey was below the EU-28 average, but close to the World average in 2013.

GRAPH 6- DOMESTIC MATERIAL CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA BY YEARS

TABLE 4- YEARLY TREND OF DOMESTIC MATERIAL CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA (tonnes)

YEARS

2000

2001

2003

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Turkey

9.8

8.0

8.4

10.2

11.5

11.6

11.3

10.9

12.9

13.4

11.8

11.9

12.1

12.9

EU-28

15.6

15.6

15.3

16.1

16.3

16.7

16.5

14.5

14.1

14.7

13.6

13.3

13.4

13.5

World (*)

8.5

8.6

8.9

9.6

9.9

10.3

10.3

10.4

10.6

11.2

11.3

11.8

*

*

 (*) Global average values for2014 and 2015 are not available.

Sources:

1) 2000-2009 Turkey datas Sustainable Development Indicators of TURKSTAT, 2010-2014 Turkey datas were calculated using Material Flow Account of TURKSTAT.

2) EUROSTAT, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Material_flow_accounts_and_resource_productivity