11.2- Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel Type

Total primary energy consumption according to type of fuel is an indicator of a driving force, which describes the improvement in energy resources and the level of consumption. Fossil fuel consumption (crude oil, petroleum products, mineral coal, lignite, natural and derivative gases) is a surrogate indicator of resource consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution (SO2 and NOX) levels. The level of the environmental impact depends on the relative portions of the fossil fuels used and the magnitude of the precautions taken to reduce pollution.

Primary energy consumption of Turkey increased from 49,904 thousand TOE in 1990 to 128,997 thousand TOE in 2016. In 1990, the shares in primary energy consumption of Turkey in terms of coal and its derivatives was 31.8% (hard coal 12.1%, lignite 19.2%, asphaltite 0.3% and coke 0.1%). While the share of petroleum products was 43.4%, natural gas was 5.6% and share of renewable energy sources was 19.4%. As of 2016, 29.8% of Turkey's primary energy consumption was met by coal and its derivatives (hard coal 18.3%, lignite 10.5%, asphaltite 0.6% and coke 0.4%). While the share of petroleum products has decreased to 27.7%, the share of natural gas has increased to 29.2%. Portion of renewable energy sources decreased to 13.1%.

As of 2014, 17.7% of the primary energy consumption in the EU-28 countries was made up of coal and lignite, 31.1% from petroleum and petroleum products, 21.9% from natural gas, 15% from nuclear power, 13.4% from renewable energy [62].



Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, http://www.eigm.gov.tr/en-US/Balance-Sheets