Total primary energy consumption according to type of fuel is an indicator of a driving force, which describes the improvement in energy resources and the level of consumption. Fossil fuel consumption (crude oil, petroleum products, mineral coal, lignite, natural and derivative gases) is a surrogate indicator of resource consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution (SO2 and NOX) levels. The level of the environmental impact depends on the relative portions of the fossil fuels used and the magnitude of the precautions taken to reduce pollution.
Primary energy consumption of Turkey increased from 52.5 Mtep in 1990 to 145.3 Mtep in 2017. As of 1990, the share of solid fuels in primary energy consumption of Turkey was 30.2%. While the share of oil was 46.1%, that of natural gas was 5.4% and that of renewable energy resources was 18.4%. As of 2017, 27.2% of Turkey's primary energy consumption was met by solid fuels. While the share of oil decreased to 30.5%, that share of natural gas increased to 30.5%. The share of renewable energy resources was 11.9%.
As of 2016, 14.7% of the total primary energy consumption in the EU-28 countries was from solid fuels, 34.6% from oil, 23.3% from natural gas, 13.2% from nuclear, 13.2% from renewable energy resources and 1% from other resources .
GRAPH 95- PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FUEL TYPE (%)
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, http://www.eigm.gov.tr/tr-TR/Denge-Tablolari/Denge-Tablolari