10.1- Highway - Railway Network Intensity

The road network intensity provides information about the fragmentation and decay of wild life habitats and natural landscape because of active transportation. Other important factors are environmental risks such as traffic related pollution and noise. In this respect, the indicator is a pressure indicator.

In 2016, there were 55 airports open to commercial air traffic with a total airway flight line length of 66,930 km; 120 ports and 89 installations handling oil and chemicals in Turkey. The length of highways (state roads, provincial roads, highways) summed up to 67,161 km, the railway network( including both the conventional and high speed lines) to 12,532 km in length.

 

 

TABLE 31- HIGHWAY AND RAILWAY NETWORKS BY YEARS (km)

YEARS

2002

2005

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Highway Network Length (km)

63,082

63,606

64,865

65,166

65,491

65,740

65,909

66,437

67,161

Railway Network Length (km)

10,925

10,973

11,940

12,000

12,008

12,097

12,485

12,532

12,532

Source: Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications.

 

Compared to roads, railways release less greenhouse gas to the atmosphere as they consume energy more efficiently. In addition, less land is used for the construction of railways, thus this plays a significant role in the preservation of the natural environment. Besides, railways help reduce respiratory deficiencies and other illnesses caused by air pollution.

According to the 2015 data, there were 80 km highways and the 13 km railways (length of mainline) per population of 100,000. In the EU-28 countries, these figures are respectively, 410 km and 43 km in average. Considering the surface area, there were 84 km highways and 13 km railways per 1000 km2 in Turkey. In the EU-28 countries, these figures were 474 km and 50 km respectively [51].

It is estimated that highway network will have reached to 70,000 km and railway network to 25,000 km in length by 2023 [52]. Then the highway network intensity will have reached to 86 km and railway network to 32 km per 1000 km2.