Environmental Indicators
Environmental Indicators
10.1- Highway - Railway Network Intensity

The road network intensity provides information about the fragmentation and decay of wild life habitats and natural landscape because of active transportation. Other important factors are environmental risks such as traffic related pollution and noise. In this respect, the indicator is a pressure indicator.

In 2017, there were 55 airports open to commercial air traffic with a total airway flight line length of 70,879 km in Turkey. The length of highways (state roads, provincial roads, highways) summed up to 67,620 km, the railway network (including both the conventional and high speed lines) to 12,608 km in length.

 

TABLE 26- HIGHWAY AND RAILWAY NETWORKS BY YEARS (km)

YEARS

2002

2005

2010

2015

2016

2017

Highway Network Length (km)

63,082

63,606

64,865

66,437

67,161

67,620

Railway Network Length (km)

10,925

10,973

11,940

12,532

12,532

12,608

Source: Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure

Compared to roads, railways release less greenhouse gas to the atmosphere as they consume energy more efficiently. In addition, less land is used for the construction of railways, thus this plays a significant role in the preservation of the natural environment. Besides, railways help reduce respiratory deficiencies and other illnesses caused by air pollution.

According to the 2016 data, there were 80 km highways and the 13 km railways (length of mainline) per population of 100,000, in Turkey. In the EU-28 countries, these figures are respectively, 410 km and 44 km in average. Considering the surface area, there were 85 km highways and 13 km railways per 1000 km2 in Turkey. In the EU-28 countries, these figures were 465 km and 51 km respectively[57].

It is estimated that highway network will have reached to 70,000 km and railway network to 25,000 km in length by 2023 [58]. Then the highway network intensity will have reached to 86 km and railway network to 32 km per 1000 km2.