Environmental Indicators
Environmental Indicators
Indicator concept



In the World, various approaches are applied related to developments of environmental indicators; indicator sets are created within different conceptual frameworks or models. One of them is, “Pressure, State, Response” (PSR) framework. In 1994, the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) developed and established a comprehensive indicator system in order to provide a basis for reporting environmental policies. Another model, DPSIR was produced developing the framework of PSR by EEA (European Environment Agency) in 2004 to define the relationship between the society and the environment. This model contains five elements; “driving force, pressure, state, impact, and response“. By this approach, it is possible to measure the effectiveness of applied precautions, in other words, it is possible to explain entity relationship between the driving forces and impacts;

  • Driving force indicators: These indicators are the factors behind various variables. If we need to express in general, all economic activities are classified in this group.
  • Pressure indicators: They define environmental variables that may cause problems. These indicators directly focus on the sources of the problems. In general, all emissions are classified in this group.
  • State indicators: These indicators aim to show the current situation of the environment. In general, all concentration measurements are classified in this group.
  • Impact indicators: These are the most extreme effects caused by environmental changes. In general, indicators related to health problems resulted from environmental changes are classified in this group.
  • Response indicators: Response indicators include official attempts to prevent, compensate, and enhance reactions given by individuals or the society against any changes in the situation of the environment or to adapt to these changes. In other words, indicators about the solutions to prevent environmental pollution fall into this category.

Schematic demonstration of DPSIR framework