12.5- Environmental Impact Assessment Decisions
The indicator is a response indicator. Environmental impact assessment (EIA), one of the most important tools of sustainable development, has been in implementation in Turkey since 1993. EIA is a tool implemented to prevent the potential impacts of the projects planned on the environment and in determining the technological alternatives together with the selected location. Before the projects are put into practice, it is mandatory to receive a certificate of EIA Positive/ EIA not necessary within the scope of EIA legislation.
EIA decisions are significant as a reflection of the level of industrialization and development process of Turkey.
GRAPH 108- THE NUMBER OF EIA POSITIVE AND EIA NOT NECESSARY DECISIONS BETWEEN 1993 WHEN THE FIRST EIA LEGISLATION WAS PUBLISHED AND 2016 AND GDP PER CAPITA
Sources: EIA data of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, General Directorate of EIA, Permit and Inspection, the TURKSTAT data for GDP per capita, https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/gosterge/?locale=tr
In summary, the “EIA Positive Decisions” are defined as the positive decisions made after investigating projects existing in the list in annex 1 of the Legislation which have relatively high environmental impacts. “EIA not necessary” decisions are the positive decisions given through the screening of the projects existing in the list annex 2 of the legislation which have relatively fewer impacts on the environment when compared to annex 1.
In Turkey, the first EIA Regulation was published in 1993 and by the end of 2016, a total of 4632 “EIA positive” decisions were given. When these decisions are investigated according to the distribution by sector we can see that oil and mining investments ranked the first with 27%, followed by energy investments with 24% and waste and chemical industry investments with 13%.
From 1993 up to the end of 2016 a total of 54,238 “EIA not required” decisions were issued. According to the distribution by sector, oil and mining investments again ranked the first with 49%, followed by agriculture and food investments with 15% and industrial investments with 12%.
GRAPH 109- DISTRIBUTION OF EIA POSITIVE DECISIONS BY SECTOR BETWEEN 1993-2016
GRAPH 110- DISTRIBUTION OF EIA IS NOT REQUIRED DECISIONS BY SECTOR BETWEEN 1993-2016
Source: Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, General Directorate of the EIA, Permit and Inspection.