Environmental Indicators
Environmental Indicators


Population Growth Rate

Indicator shows the average annual increase of the population during a specific period or year. Growth rate is expressed as annual population increase for every 100 inhabitants.

Urban Population

Indicator shows the percentage of the population in provincial and district centres and within municipal boundaries over total population.

Migrant Population

Internal migration is defined as changes in usual residence addresses of population within one year in the specific areas inside the country.



Resource Productivity

Resource productivity is GDP divided by domestic material consumption (DMC). DMC measures the total amount of materials directly used by an economy. It is defined as the annual quantity of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory of the focal economy, plus all physical imports minus all physical exports. It is important to note that the term "consumption" as used in DMC denotes apparent consumption and not final consumption. DMC does not include upstream flows related to imports and exports of raw materials and products originating outside of the focal economy.

Domestic Material Consumption

The indicator Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is defined as the total amount of material directly used in an economy. DMC equals Direct Material Input (DMI) minus exports. DMI measures the direct input of materials for the use in the economy. DMI equals Domestic Extraction (DE) plus imports.

Environmental Protection Expenditure

Environmental protection expenditure is the money spent on all purposeful activities directly aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of environmental pollution originating from production processes and consumption of goods and services. For the public sector administrative, monitoring, and enforcement expenditures are included. Environmental protection includes both abatement of and protection from pollution, and activities related to environmental degradation. Primary aim of the activities in this section is environmental protection. Actions which have a favorable impact on the environment but which serve primarily other goals do not come under environmental protection. In addition, activities performed for technical reasons, hygiene or security and provide environmental benefits are not included.

Sectoral Distribution of the Employment

It indicates the percentage of the active population of agriculture, industry, construction and service sectors in the total active population.



Piped water supply

Piped water supply system is defined as bringing pressurised water inside pipes from the municipal water supply network into the dwellings. Forcepumps, wells, spring supplies, cicterns, rainwater collection systems, fountains outside the houses are not considered as piped water supply systems. However, a piped water that serves in a courtyard for common use is accepted as piped water supply system.


Acute Gastroenteritis

Kinds of diarrhea and gastroenteritis not caused by specific factors or estimated to be caused by enfectious sources. It is considered as a state of defecation three or more times a day with faeces in liquid form, extending to 14 days (more than that duration implies chronic diarrhea). It may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fever and bowel pain. 



Greenhouse Gas Emissions

These emissions comprise of direct greenhouse gasses, such as: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) , nitrous oxide (N2O) , hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and indirect greenhouse gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) , non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions that are generated by energy, industrial processes and product use, agricultural activities and emissions from waste disposal. National Greenhouse Gas Emissions are calculated by using the guidelines of 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sectors

Indicator refers to the amount of the greenhouse gas emissions caused by different sectors and expressed as CO2 equivalent.

Carbon Sink

Natural or human-made systems that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store them. Forests are the most common form of sink, in addition to soils, peat, permafrost, ocean water and carbonate deposits in the deep ocean.

Carbon Sequestration

The process of capturing carbon dioxide in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere for a specified period. The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir.


The expression describes the average precipitation per unit area.


This indicates monitoring of the average surface temperature in time series.

Sea Water Temperature

This indicates the yearly change of the sea water surface temperature in time series.



Air Pollutant Emission

Emission of air pollutants is the expression for particular pollutants and is obtained by multiplying annual activity data with the emission factors and expressed as total mass (Kilotonnes, Gigagrams, etc.) per year.

Air Quality

This indicator; shows the mass concentrations of SO2 and Particulate Matter (PM) in the ambient air. SO2 is a suffocating, colourless and acidic gas which mostly arises from generation of sulphurous compounds that are naturally present in the fuel substances during combustion of fuels. Particulate Matter (PM) is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in the atmosphere. It comes in a variety of sizes and can be composed of many types of materials and chemicals. PM could also be formed by the agglomeration and the chemical conversion of the gaseous emissions. Particles between 5 to 10 micrometre diameter is defined as suspended particles. Overall, SO2 involves heterogeneous mixtures and their characteristics vary considerably from one location to another. Particulate Matters are called PM10 if the aerodynamic diameter of the particles is less than 10 micrometres.

Limit value: A level fixed on the basis of scientific knowledge, with the aim of avoiding, preventing or reducing harmful effects on human health and/or the environment as a whole, to be attained within a given period and not to be exceeded once attained.



Water Usage

This indicates the amount of total water which is drawn from the sources in a sectoral basis such as municipality, irrigation, drinking and utilization and industry.

Oxygen Consuming Substances in Rivers

The primary indicator of oxygenation state in water bodies, is expressed as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)—which is the amount of dissolved oxygen required for the aerobic decomposition of organic matter present in water. This indicator also shows the present state and trends of ammonium (NH4) concentrations and BOD in rivers.

Nutrients in Fresh Water Sources

Indicators can be used to show geographical variations in current nutrient concentrations - orthophosphate and nitrate concentrations in rivers, total phosphate and nitrate in lakes and nitrate in underground water formations - and temporal trends.

Bathing Water Quality

This indicates bathing water quality in the coastal areas. According to By-law on Bathing Water Quality, following qualities represent Class A: Very Good/Excellent, Class B: Good Quality, Class C: Bad Quality and Class D: Very Bad Quality/Needs to be Banned.

Drinking and Potable Water Resources of Municipalities

This indicates the rate of the water drawn from dams, wells, natural springs, rivers, lakes and ponds by the municipalities for the consumption as drinking and potable water usage.

Municipalities Served by Wastewater Treatment Unit

This shows the number of the municipalities providing service with the wastewater treatment plant and the population that is benefitting from this service.

Wastewater Treatment is one or a combination of physical, chemical or biological processes in which the substances in wastewater are partially removed and partially changed by decomposition from complex highly putrescible organic solids to mineral or relatively stable organic solids. The extent of this change depends on the treatment processes involved. After all treatment processes are completed, it is still necessary to dispose off the liquid and the solids that are removed.

Wastewater Treatment Plants: Wastewater treatment plants are units in which water pollutants removed from wastewater by using different methods (biological, chemical, physical)

Treatment Methods

- Physical Treatment: Physical methods are the processes by which the undissolved pollutants are separated from the wastewater by filtration, sedimentation or floatation. The most common physical treatment units are; screens, sieves, sand traps, balancing and sedimentation and floatation ponds.

- Chemical Treatment: In chemical treatment by using chemicals like coagulants and polyelectrolytes, substances dissolved or suspended in the wastewater are separated.

- Biological Treatment: In this method microorganisms are used to eliminate dissolved organic substances in the wastewater which cannot be removed by physical or chemical methods. Some biological treatment methods can be mentioned as trickling filter, activated sludge, stabilization tank (oxidation tank).

- Advanced Treatment: It is the treatment method applied when physical and biological treatment methods are not capable to remove sufficiently or to remove at all, the pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals, toxic organic substances, etc.. Some of the advanced methods are; nitrification, denitrification, adsorption, ion exchange, etc.

- Natural Water Treatment System: Treatment by natural processes, such as: sedimentation of pollutants in artificial wetlands and treatment of wastewater by plants which can live in this kind of environment.

The Population Combined to at least Secondary (Biological) Wastewater Treatment Plant

It is the information of the percentage of the population whose wastewater is treated by at least secondary wastewater treatment.

Secondary Wastewater Treatment: When wastewater is treated by biological treatment or similar processes with secondary sedimentation. In this way, biochemical oxygen demand in wastewater (BOD) is reduced to at least 70%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to 75%.


Municipal Waste and Disposal

This indicator shows the amount of the waste collected by the municipalities or on behalf of municipalities and the amount of the landfilled municipal waste. Waste generated in the houses are the most significant quantity of the municipal waste. It also includes the waste generated by the trade and commercial companies, office buildings, institutions and small workplaces.


Landfills are the areas in which the waste are disposed off according to certain technical standards.  This excludes the services in which the waste is stored in the interim storages less than 1 year for disposal, facilities in which the waste is stored in interim storage for less than 3 years for recovery or pre-treatment and the units in which the waste is stored in temporary waste storages for disposal or pre-treatment or recovery in the facility where the waste is generated. This indicator contains information about the number of landfills and the ratio of population the service is provided to.

Medical Waste

It is the total amount of infectious, pathological and cutting-piercing wastes collected from health institutions.

Waste Oils

This indicator expresses the amount of collected oil which is used, from the gasoline engine, diesel engine, transmission and differential box, transmission, grease and other private vehicle oils and hydraulic system, turbine and compressor, slide, open-closed gearbox, circulation, metal cutting and processing, metal rolling textile, thermal processing, heat transfer, isolation and protection, isolation, transformer, molding, steam cylinder, pneumatic system protector, food and medicine industry, paper machine, bearing and other industrial oils and industrial greases, used thickeners, protective, cleaning and other similar preparations and oil products which are not appropriate for use.

Waste Vegetable oils

This indicates the total amount of collected vegetable oils, such as soap-stocks from refinery industry (residue formed during the removal of the fatty acids from raw oil using the base), tank bottom residues, oiled soils, used frying oil, oils from the oil separators of various facilities and expired vegetable oils.

Waste Batteries and Accumulators

It shows the collected amount and recovered amount of the used batteries and accumulators which are required to be collected, transported and disposed separately from household waste.

Packaging Waste

It contains the information about the wasted and recovered amounts of the sale, secondary and transportation packaging left to environment including the ones used for the presentation of the product during the process of transfer of goods to the consumer or the end user. This includes the expired reusable packaging waste formed after the product use but excludes waste from production.

Economic Facilities (for packaging waste)

It includes the packaging producers, merchandisers and suppliers.

End of Life Tires

This indicates the amount of tires that have reached the end of their useful life and that are used as additional fuel in recovery facilities or cement factories.

End of Life Vehicles

This indicates the number of the scrapped vehicles through the years.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

This indicates the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment collected and the number of treatment facilities.

Mining Waste

This indicates the waste determined by the result of the questionnaire surveys made in the mining facilities such as coal and lignite, metal ore mining, mining and quarries and other sectors with supportive activities that employ 10 or more people.

Hazardous Waste

It includes information regarding the generation quantity and recovery processes of the waste which have properties of being explosive, flammable, self-combustible, exhaling flammable gases when in contact with water, oxidizing, containing organic peroxide, poisonous, corrosive, exhaling toxic gases when they are in contact with water or air and toxic and ecotoxic properties.

Ship Waste

Waste occured during the normal operation of the ships and covered by the International onvention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto MARPOL 73/78 Annex 1 (Oily wastes), Annex 2 (Noxious liquid substances in bulk), Annex 4 (sewage), Annex 5 (garbage).


The transformation of waste into a similar material or a new raw material, product or energy by undergoing certain processes. (For instance, obtaining nylon fibers from plactic bottles, producing paper from waste paper, producing energy by combustion of wastes in incineration plants, etc.)



Distributions of General Land Cover

According to the CORINE project (Coordination of Information on the Environment) use types are divided into two.

1. Land Cover: It shows the state of the land covered with biological and physical elements such as, natural maquis, shrub lands, natural cliffs and natural pastures etc.

2. Land Use: It describes the land use appearing by human effect. This indicator shows a comparison between the land use changes and proportional indication of land use types determined according to Coordination of Information on the Environment-CORINE project.

Land use categories identified according to CORINE are:

1. Artificial Areas: Most of these areas are covered with buildings and transportation network.

2. Agricultural Areas: Both tamed agriculture lands and pasture areas are placed under this headline.

3. Forest and Semi-natural Areas: They are the areas consisting of forests, maquis, herbaceous plants and non-planted and less planted open areas.

4. Wetlands: These are areas which stay wet ecologically from the coastal line to the land side and all the water, marshes, reeds and peatland which do not exceed six meters during the tide movements of the seas, bitter or salted, stagnant or flowing, continuous or temporary, natural or artificial and which are important as the habitats of living things especially water birds.

5. Water Bodies: It includes the water bodies such as the continental waters (stream surfaces) and sea waters (lagoons, bays, sea and oceans).

Misuse of Agricultural Areas

It means giving permission to the lands that have the agricultural land property into use other than agricultural purposes according to certain  laws or by-laws.

Zones Under Threat of Erosion

Erosion is the movement of soil from its natural environment by certain influences such as water flow, wind or gravity. Although it is a natural event, it becomes stronger with the influences such as water flow, wind and gravity with the result of deterioration of the natural structure of the land. In Turkey, several types of erosion are observed. Water erosion is the most common erosion type in Turkey. This indicator is shown together with the strength of erosion occurring in agricultural areas, forests and meadows.



Biological Diversity

Biological diversity is the unity of genes, species, ecosystems and ecological events in a particular area. In other words, biological diversity contains the whole genes in a certain area, the species carrying these genes, the ecosystems home for these species and all the events (processes) which bind these together.

Protected Areas

These areas are the areas protected according to the description by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) updated in 2008. It is the area which is managed by legal and other effective methods, having geographical borders clearly described and dedicated for the purpose of protection of the nature and related ecosystem services and cultural values in the long term.

Forest Area

It is the size in hectare scale of the area covered by forest cover with a certain closure.

Normal Forest (Productive)

They are forests where the trees crown cover 11-100% of the hill tops.

Degraded Forest

They are forests where less than 10% of the tops of the trees crown cover the area.

Tree Growing Stock

The sum of the cyllindrical body volumes in terms of m3 of the standing tree trunks with a chest diameter of 8 cm or more.

Definitions Related with Forestry Studies;

Functional Forestry

This indicator represents the areas which are reserved for the total timber production, nature conservation, erosion prevention, hydrological, aesthetic, ecotourism and recreation, climate protection, public health, national defence and scientific use in the total forested area.

Tree Growing Stock

It is the sum of the body volume of cylindrical body-shell trees (m3) that have at least 8 cm or more chest diameter.

Range Rehabilitation

It involves activities like irrigation, fertilization, weed control, seeding, planting, tree planting and other biological techniques to increase the feed efficiency of the meadows and pastures in terms of quality and quantity; and the construction of plants facilitating grazing and the application of a variety of physical, technical and administrative measures in order to maintain soil.


This indicates the steps that include protection, fertilization, and pruning of existing species in degraded or unproductive forest areas and planting species that grow naturally in forests, including the plantation of grafted or non-grafted seedlings of these species.

Erosion Control

This includes the studies involving the precautions taken against erosion and removal of soil on the earth bedrock because of several factors.

Artificial Regeneration

This indicates soil processing, weed cleaning and wire embracing works by the help of machinery and manpower.

Private Afforestation

This indicates the afforestation projects permitted and approved by the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, in the degraded forest areas, legal entities of the public domain and private land in the villages, municipalities, associations, foundations, chambers, the related entities that wood and harvesting belongs to commercial companies that are legal entity and natural entities.



Highway Railway Network

This indicates development and the length of total roads (highways, state roads, province roads) and railroads

The Amount of Freight and Passengers Carried by Transport Types

This indicator shows distribution by percentage among transport types for the freight and passenger transport in the country.

Number of Road Motor Vehicles

It indicates the total number of road motor vehicles such as automobiles (including off-road vehicles), minibuses, autobuses, vans, trucks, and motorcycles, special purposed vehicles, road and non-road machinary and tractors.



Total Energy Consumption

It is the amount of energy sources that the enterprises consume ultimately, the conversion process and non-energy.

Total Energy Consumption by Sectors

This shows the total energy consumption of the residences, industries, transportation, agriculture, non-energy, conversion sectors with the petroleum equivalence.

Gross Inland Energy Consumption

Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of the country, including energy consumed in the form of electricity, heating and transport.

Gross inland consumption is calculated as follows: primary production + recovered products + total imports + variations of stocks - total exports - bunkers. It corresponds to the addition of final consumption, distribution

losses, transformation losses and statistical differences.

Primary Energy Consumption

By "Primary Energy Consumption" is meant the Gross Inland Consumption excluding all non-energy use of energy carriers (e.g. natural gas used not for combustion but for producing chemicals). This quantity is relevant for measuring the true energy consumption and for comparing it to the Europe 2020 targets.

Final Energy Consumption

The amount of final energy that enterprises use to produce goods and services, for space heating and transport purposes.

This indicator expresses the sum of the energy supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses. It is the sum of final energy consumption in industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, etc. Petro chemical feedstock quantities are part of transformation sector. Final energy consumption in industry covers the consumption in all industrial sectors with the exception of the 'Energy sector'. The fuel quantities transformed in the electrical power stations of industrial autoproducers and the quantities of coke transformed into blast-furnace gas are not part of the overall industrial consumption but of the transformation sector. Final energy consumption in transport covers the consumption in all types of transportation, i.e., rail, road, air transport and inland navigation. Consumption figures in household and services sector are aggregated.

Primary Energy Production

It explains the amount of energy supplied from solid fuels like coal and wood, petroleum, gas and renewable sources and the ratio of each resource to total energy production.

The Share of Renewable Energy Sources in Gross Final Energy Consumption

This indicator shows the rate of total energy consumption obtained from renewable energy sources (wood, animal and plant residues, hydraulic, geothermal, wind and solar). Renewable energy sources correspond to current external flow of energy or energy obtained from materials derived from them.

The Primary and Final Energy Intensity

The ratio of the primary energy consumption to the GDP is considered as primary energy intensity, the ratio of the the final energy consumption to the GDP is considered as final energy intensity.

Energy Consumption in Conversion Processes

It is the amount of energy that enterprises consume in electricity generation, heat production, and in coke oven / blast furnace.

Non-Energy Consumption

It is the amount of energy that enterprises consume an energy source not for energy purpose but as raw material etc.



Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

EIA contains the determination of the positive and negative impacts of the planned projects on the environment, preventing the potential negative impacts and in determining the technological alternatives to minimize the negative impacts together with the location choice. The process covers also the monitoring and inspection during the implementation stages of the projects.

EIA Positive

It is the decision of the Ministry stating that the adverse impacts of the project on environment, which is accepted to be on the desirable level according to scientific basis and due to the precautions taken; taking into consideration of the Commission for Scope Determination and Evaluation/Assessment about Environmental Impact Assessment Report

EIA Negative

The decision of the Ministry stating that it is inconvenient to implement the project due to its negative impacts on the environment; considering the decisions of the Commission for Scope Determination and Evaluation/Assessment.



Agricultural Land Per Capita

This indicates the ratio of the total arable land to total population.

Consumption of Chemical Fertilizer

It refers to the amount of active ingredients (tonnes / year) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, or nitrogen - phosphorus – calcium mix within the fertilizer consumed in agriculture.

Use of Pesticides

It refers to the total annual use of pesticides.

Organic Agriculture

Organic agriculture is agricultural production type in which no chemical inputs are used in production, only with the usage of the input permitted by the By-Law and controlled and certified in every stage from production to consumption. This indicator represents the amount of agricultural products produced by organic agricultural methods and their fields.

Good Agricultural Practices

According to the By-Law published on the Official Gazette dated 7 December 2010 and with the issue number of 27778 ; good agricultural practices represent the processes to be applied to emphasize socially viable, economically profitable and efficient agricultural production which protects human health and environment and animal health and welfare.



Aquaculture Production

This indicates the amount of sea fish, shellfish, molluscs and aquatic food whether fished or cultivated from inland waters each year. The data related to production is the live weight of the resource when caught or cultured.

Fishing Fleet Capacity

This indicates the total engine power of the fishing fleet.



Number of Tourists

It indicates the number obtained by subtracting the number of the daily tourists from the number of foreign visitor coming to Turkey and the visits of the citizens residing abroad.

Blue Flag Implementations

Blue flag is an international environment award, which is awarded to the qualified beaches, marinas and yachts that have the required standards, and it is the total number of blue flags given to the beaches and marinas in Turkey since 1994. However, blue flag award is granted to yachts since 2008 in Turkey.



Forest Fires

It indicates the total number of burned forest area within the whole forest areas in years.

Disasters by Types

It indicates the number of periodical occurrence of natural disasters such as hydraulic (flood, landslide), meteorological (storm, avalanche), geophysical (earthquake, volcanic activity) and climatic (heating, malformation, drought, fire) and industrial accidents, traffic accidents, pipeline transportation, and the deaths and property loss caused by these disasters.